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Showing content with the highest reputation since 11/10/2019 in Posts

  1. 3 points
  2. 3 points
    By Brian McNeill University Public Affairs 804-827-0889 bwmcneill@vcu.edu Thursday, Nov. 7, 2019 E-liquids — the flavored nicotine solution used in e-cigarettes — frequently contain the unlisted ingredient ethanol, or alcohol, according to research conducted in the lab of Virginia Commonwealth University professor Michelle Peace, Ph.D. Out of 56 commercially available vape juice samples Peace’s lab tested, all but three contained ethanol, and 11 contained more than 10% ethanol. That study, published in 2017 in the journal Drug Testing and Analysis, warned that the implications of vaping ethanol as an e-liquid component are not known. Now, Peace, an associate professor in the Department of Forensic Science in the College of Humanities and Sciences, is investigating those implications under two grants awarded by the National Institute of Justice in the U.S. Department of Justice totaling roughly $1.8 million. “We were surprised to find such highly concentrated amounts of ethanol in e-liquids. A little bit of ethanol would not be surprising because the solvent for a lot of flavoring chemicals is ethanol,” Peace said. “For instance, if you’re going to be using natural vanilla extract, you’re going to wind up with small amounts of ethanol in the e-liquid. But to find ethanol at high concentrations, definitely surprising. So we started asking: what are the implications of this?” Peace is exploring such questions as: Do people vaping ethanol feel an effect? Can vaping ethanol lead to impairment? What is the effect on an e-cigarette user’s blood alcohol content? Could vaping ethanol lead to false-positive results for police field sobriety or breath alcohol tests? Could vaping ethanol lead to people becoming unwittingly drunk? There are few published studies about the effects of inhaling ethanol, but Peace expects her lab will not find that vaping ethanol can lead to high levels of impairment. Yet, she noted, some users have reported in online vaping forums that they felt an intoxicating effect. “Do people feel some kind of immediate effect or not? For the most part, we thought probably not,” Peace said. “But one of the concerns is that as you inhale ethanol, you’re bypassing the gut, which adds this layer of protection when you swallow alcohol. So, if you’re inhaling ethanol and you’re inhaling a lot of ethanol, then there is enough in the [online vaping] forums that we thought, are people experiencing a momentary impairment or something like that?” For both grants, Peace’s lab is partnering with the Center for the Study of Tobacco Products in the Department of Psychology, the Department of Statistical Sciences and Operations Research, the VCU Police Department, the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology in the School of Medicine, the Department of Pharmaceutics in the School of Pharmacy, and the Virginia Department of Forensic Science. As part of the first grant, “Through the Looking Glass: Abuse of the Evolving Electronic Cigarette and the Impact of Vaping Ethanol in the Evaluation of Impairment,” Peace’s lab is investigating vaping ethanol and field sobriety tests. “Ethanol is in e-liquids and e-liquids are sticky,” Peace said. “It can hang on to the gums and inside the mouth. So, will residual ethanol remain in the mouth for a preliminary breath test or an evidentiary breath test?” If vaping e-liquids containing ethanol can trigger a positive result in a sobriety test, it could have major consequences for public safety and criminal justice. For example, Peace said, an attorney representing a client charged with DUI could suggest that the client had simply been vaping, not drinking and driving. “Some of our concern is that vaping ethanol could be used as some kind of tactic to confuse the court system as to why [a defendant] was positive for ethanol,” she said. “For legitimate cases of driving under the influence, we certainly don’t want there to be a defense that casts so much doubt [of a Breathalyzer result] that a legitimate case gets thrown out.” The second grant, “Through the Looking Glass Part II: Abuse of the Evolving Electronic Cigarette and the Impact of Vaping Ethanol in the Evaluation of Impairment,” continues the research of the first grant, but also involves collecting oral fluid, blood and urine from users vaping different concentrations of ethanol. By collecting bodily fluids, the researchers will be able to measure the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of ethanol once a user vapes it. It’s important to understand if vaping ethanol can be detected in bodily fluids, Peace said, because it could lead to false-positive violations of probation conditions or alcohol treatment facility rules. As a result, she said, people could violate the terms of their probation, which could have serious ramifications such as more jail time or loss of child custody, or get kicked out of a treatment program. “Our concern is that, for people who are vaping ethanol who are on probation or who have to report to drug courts, or they are in a clinic for substance use and abuse, they [get tested] to show that they are not consuming ethanol,” Peace said. “If somebody is legitimately not drinking alcohol, but they happen to vape and they happen to unknowingly be vaping high ethanol concentration, then they could have the metabolites for ethanol in their urine and then it’d be a violation of the requirements of their program.” Peace’s research into e-cigarettes extends beyond vaping ethanol. Last year, her lab published a study describing how they tested nine commercially available CBD e-liquids and discovered that several contained unlisted ingredients such as a synthetic cannabinoid linked to deadly overdoses and a chemical found in cough syrup. Her research into CBD and vaping was featured recently in The New York Times and in a CNN documentary, “Weed 5: The CBD Craze,” with Sanjay Gupta, M.D.
  3. 3 points
    Sanction

    Sanction lifted

    Much appreciated. Now that mwarren is taking a sabbatical, the number of three letter acronyms on this board has reduced almost to a manageable level..
  4. 2 points
    Ras

    Sanction lifted

    Phrasing, young man, phrasing. I am many things, but "idiot" is definitely not among them. By contrast, I am also an outlier for many reasons, but being the victim of machine-induced injury is definitely not among them. 😁
  5. 2 points
    Sanction

    Sanction lifted

    BWT, calling me a "Pint Of Marijuana" : a) is uncouth b) makes no sense c) is likely to be misunderstood by someone with less attunement to modern culture than I possess
  6. 2 points
    Well, seven years later and I still believe this. I've restarted 5:2 IF and I feel great. It is the ideal form of diet for me because it is completely binary and the "rules" are stupidly simple. I always forget about the slight euphoria IF induces until I've started doing it again. Feels really good. Two days a week I am consuming <500kcal and almost all of it in the form of protein drinks along with some nuts. I did find some high-protein cup-o-soup designed for gastric bypass patients that is pretty good and permits me to have a little something that seems like it has some substance....15g of PRO and about 90kcal for the cup. It is a little spendy however so I've been toying with the idea of reproducing it using bone broth and traditional Lipton cup-o-soup. I'd like to drop about 15lbs over the next 6-8 weeks....so we'll see what happens.
  7. 2 points
    Growth Factor

    GF's "CS Goes Pubic" Log

    In more personal news, I had a 1 on 1 meeting with the director of the graduate program of pharmacology. I was advised that I do not need a GRE to apply to the PhD program. GRE or MCAT scores can be submitted, but it is not mandatory and cannot hurt you. I was also advised I would be a strong candidate due to having a couple of first-author publications and many more co-authored papers. If I get a letter from my boss that states he'd take me into his lab, I have an in. So when I meet with him about a letter, I'll be sure to ask about that. I think I've also mentioned somewhere here something about having my interest piqued around physical therapy as a career. I asked and attended an informational session this Friday where they went over the program, the curriculum, the faculty, some other trivia regarding students and student life, and the application process. I was unable to ask my very personal questions, but it does seem that 1) I need a GRE, and 2) I pay out of pocket. So without confirmation on a couple of other questions, I must weight going into debt, studying and taking the GRE, and acquiring real world experience in the field and subsequently delaying my application process even further, against the pros of doing a PhD program in pharm/tox. I obviously really would love to work with patients and in the field of movement moreso than doing benchwork or even running a lab that does just basic or translational science, but I'm really tired of my financial situation and am hesitant to go into debt. At least it wouldn't be a metric-ton of debt like doctors get into, and I'd be making a decent salary right out of the gates, but I have to really think about this first. I also might not be able to get in! However, apparently the program does accept people from other disciplines and is even interested in these types of candidates, provided they have other strengths that would make them a good candidate PTist. Apparently my program is in the top 20, so it's quite competitive. EDIT: the solution might actually be more obvious, which is to start volunteering at a PT and see how I like it.
  8. 1 point
    STENDEC

    Sanction lifted

    Insofar as you are not an idiot my porcine possessing friend, you are an outlier.
  9. 1 point
    Emperor G_D

    Sanction lifted

    Most injuries on Smith machines comes from beginner trainees getting out of position and the aforementioned POM issue becomes the cause of the injury. I don't disagree with Ben insofar as it's not "the devil", and it can probably be used safely by some, but definitely not all.
  10. 1 point
    STENDEC

    AI and Machine Learning thread

    Is that a failure of the robots or the humans who designed and programed them?
  11. 1 point
    Sanction

    AI and Machine Learning thread

    Robots failed for Tesla and now Boeing. Humans are re-introduced to the factory. "... the planemaker struggled to keep the robots moving in sync on the outside and inside of the fuselage panels, creating production snarls..." https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-11-13/boeing-s-humans-step-in-after-robots-fumble-assembly-of-777-jets
  12. 1 point
    STENDEC

    Sanction lifted

    Ras is an outlier. Unless you are being an idiot, it is really hard to hurt yourself with a Smith Machine.
  13. 1 point
    Ras

    Sanction lifted

    The POM of both is kind of shit. Any early lifting days injuries I inflicted on myself can probably be attributed to these pieces of equipment.
  14. 1 point
    STENDEC

    Sanction lifted

    It is likely no worse. The Smith Machine is not the devil....for inexperienced lifters who are working without the benefit of direct supervision, it's a versatile piece of "barbell" equipment that more-or-less works and is, more than anything, hard to hurt yourself with.
  15. 1 point
    Emperor G_D

    Sanction lifted

    It's not.
  16. 1 point
    Growth Factor

    GF's "CS Goes Pubic" Log

    19/11/09 DEADLIFT A2S C1W6 DEADLIFT 245x5 335x4 425x1 475x1 525x2 <-- RPE 9.0 but slow SSB PAUSE SQUATS 245x3x10 SSB PIN GMs 225x3x8 HANGING AB RIPPER BWx10,10,7 Pretty pumped that the workout went as planned. At this point I might go ahead and use a calculated 1RM of 545 to design the rest of my deadlift programming moving forward. I still have to get back on track with squats one of these days.
  17. 1 point
    Growth Factor

    GF's "CS Goes Pubic" Log

    19/11/02 OHP A2S C1W5 OHP 95x8 115x6 135x4 150x8 140x8 130x11 CGBP 135x10 215x12,11,8 SEATED NAUTILUS ROW 3P35PSx10,10,10 DB HAMMER CURLS SS SINGLE ARM ROPE EXTENSIONS 45x12,12,8 30x15,15,15 ROPE FACEPULLS 30x15x3 This was done at a diff gym. I think this is in part why the CGBP sucked and my rows were dog. Everything else went well.
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