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Proven Fat Loss Adjuvants


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JD's recent post about fat loss supplements got me thinking about all the stuff that's out there being hyped as fat loss promoters...very little of it is backed up with actual human clinical studies...so I'd like to make a list of supplements (anything that can be purchased OTC in the US) that have actual demonstrated efficacy for promoting fat loss in humans under controlled conditions.

 

In this instance, we are not interested in things that have only anecdotal support or things that "should" work based on MOA or things that have been shown to work in animals only. Also not interested in things that work only when correcting a deficiency...we want things that increase fat loss when taken supplementally to a slimming diet. If you post anything, please post the supporting reference as well.

 

So far I can come up with:

 

Ephedrine HCL

Caffeine

Pyruvate

MCT

GTE

CLA (evidence for this in humans is weak IMO)

Nicotine

Fish Oil

Capsinoids

Yohimbine (data are contradictory)

 

Others?

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.   ...no bad   Novo Nordisk’s semaglutide demonstrates superior weight loss versus placebo in STEP 4 trial https://www.clinicaltrialsarena.com/comment/novo-nordisk-semaglutid

Lancet. 2018 Aug 25;392(10148):637-649. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31773-2. Epub 2018 Aug 16. Efficacy and safety of semaglutide compared with liraglutide and placebo for weight loss in patients wit

Yeah, that's why I drew the comparison.    Might be interesting to add it in again now that I'm better, diet-wise. I think all of the things I tried for so many years were for naught, becaus

I thought that this might be something good to bring up within this discussion. AFAIK, there are 4 mechanisms through which fat loss adjuvants should work:

 

1. "Freeing up" of fatty acids from fat cells.

2. Actual burning of the fatty acids.

3. Blocking re-uptake of fatty acids back into fat cells.

4. Appetite suppression (keeping you from taking the calories in in the first place).

 

You could argue that there is a 5th mechanism, which would be recompositioning agents (supplements that preferably shuttle nutrients to muscles so that they don't end up in fat in the first place).

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It is quite interesting that 2. and 4. are more closely interwoven than people belief. The "satiety hormones", above all GLP-1, actually regulate fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Being full and satisfied should thusly be your goal, not your nemesis on a diet

 

+ the satiety hormones, or substances that modulate them are thusly "recompositioning agents"

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It is quite interesting that 2. and 4. are more closely interwoven than people belief. The "satiety hormones", above all GLP-1, actually regulate fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Being full and satisfied should thusly be your goal, not your nemesis on a diet

 

+ the satiety hormones, or substances that modulate them are thusly "recompositioning agents"

 

That is an interesting way to look at it. In other words, keeping the brakes from getting stomped on.

 

As far as proven supps, how about TTA? I would think that this must count, seeing as how big pharma is so interested in it. And, it is an actual fat burner (vs. fat liberator or nutrient partitioner).

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DHEA at 25mg a day

VitC + NAC

 

I thought I got both of these ideas from you Benson.

In any event I've taken the three for a month on three separate occasions and seemed to notice a moderate gut reduction but don't have the numbers.

 

Dont think it will fit Bensons criteria of being proven but I did some searching and started a thread about it here - http://warriorstrengthclub.com/forum/showthread.php?225-DHEA-NAC-VitC-for-fat-loss&p=2044

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That is an interesting way to look at it. In other words, keeping the brakes from getting stomped on.

 

As far as proven supps, how about TTA? I would think that this must count, seeing as how big pharma is so interested in it. And, it is an actual fat burner (vs. fat liberator or nutrient partitioner).

true, TTA is sort of a "proven agent", but its side effects are too "statin like" for my liking to recommend it to anyone...

 

if there are still doubts about its MOA, check out this one > http://suppversity.blogspot.com/2012/02/tta-fish-oil-fat-burning-superfats-or.html

 

the increase in UCP3 is more than just "profound"!

a.PNG

Figure 2: Relative expression of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3, primary axis) and enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism (secondary axis) at the end of the 50-week dietary intervention; expressed relative to high fat control (data calculated based on Vigerust. 2012).

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I thought that this might be something good to bring up within this discussion. AFAIK, there are 4 mechanisms through which fat loss adjuvants should work:

 

1. "Freeing up" of fatty acids from fat cells.

2. Actual burning of the fatty acids.

3. Blocking re-uptake of fatty acids back into fat cells.

4. Appetite suppression (keeping you from taking the calories in in the first place).

 

You could argue that there is a 5th mechanism, which would be recompositioning agents (supplements that preferably shuttle nutrients to muscles so that they don't end up in fat in the first place).

 

Very helpful to keep in mind, thanks Kimbo.

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[Vit D is] overlooked because it doesn't work, at least the Vit D component. Calcium has some questionable effects (supplementation normally has no effect, but not unusual to see literature supporting the efficacy of dairy calcium.)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19056900

(Good N, high dose, 12 months, placebo controlled.)

 

Was mainly referring to Calcium, although the D part is nice addition for health reasons.

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I think Vit D and "health reasons" probably deserves its own thread (might have one already, I didn't check). Seems that most of the data that made Vit D out to be such a panacea was based on the same kind of methodology used to establish most of our other worst-founded medical recommendations: cross-sectional associations, in vitro studies, case-control retrospective analyses, etc.

 

Now that much of the Vit D fanaticism has started to wash over and more randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled trials are coming forth, I don't see much evidence of the robust effects on health that were anticipated.

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Now that much of the Vit D fanaticism has started to wash over and more randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled trials are coming forth, I don't see much evidence of the robust effects on health that were anticipated.

I could hardly agree more... there is simply NO evidence where supplementation outside of full-blown deficiency was of ANY use

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back to the topic at hand: from > http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00908.x/full (I will post an excerpt)

 

Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism

 

A. E. Jeukendrup*,

R. Randell

 

Summary

 

The term ‘fat burner’ is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning. [...]

 

Caffeine

[...] In summary, in some circumstances caffeine can increase energy expenditure (at rest) or fat oxidation (at rest and during low-intensity exercise), but these effects are less obvious during moderate- to high-intensity exercise. Caffeine on its own has not been shown to be effective in reducing body weight and if caffeine increases fat metabolism, the effects are generally small (<20%). Of course, it cannot be excluded that such changes still have significant practical value. For a complete review of the effects of caffeine on substrate metabolism, see Graham et al. (11).

 

Carnitine

[...]While it is possible that carnitine may be elevated and may have some effects on fat metabolism after several months of ingesting carnitine in combination with a relatively large amount of carbohydrate, it is too early to draw any conclusions. If used for weight loss reasons, it seems counterproductive to consume large amounts of carbohydrate to increase insulin to make sure carnitine concentrations in the muscle are slightly elevated and might result in small improvements in fat oxidation in the long term. Potentially for athletes who have very high energy expenditures anyway and consume carnitine with their meals or energy drinks, it may be possible to raise muscle carnitine concentrations. Overall, however, the practical implications of this are currently unclear and there is not enough evidence to recommend carnitine for weight loss or to increase fat oxidation.

 

Forskolin

[...] t has been demonstrated that forskolin can stimulate lipolysis in adipose tissue in rats (21,22). There is only one study that investigated the effects of forskolin on body composition and metabolic rate in humans (23). In this study, 30 obese men were supplemented with forskolin (250 mg of a 10% forskolin extract twice a day) for 12 weeks. The authors concluded that forskolin ingestion resulted in favourable changes in body composition determined by dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry. Following forskolin supplementation body fat mass was significantly decreased by −11.23%, compared to −1.73% in the placebo group. This reduction in body fat mass, with forskolin ingestion, was accompanied with a significant reduction in body fat percentage from baseline (35.17 ± 8.03% to 31.03 ± 7.96%). Unfortunately, no measurements of fat metabolism were reported, although the authors did report that energy expenditure was not different between the forskolin-supplemented group and the placebo group. So although there is a theory that is promising, there is only one study at the present time and more work is required before forskolin can be recommended as a fat metabolism-enhancing substance.

 

Fucoxanthin

Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid found in edible brown seaweeds (Undaria pinnatifida). In animal studies it has been demonstrated that long-term fucoxanthin supplementation can result in weight loss. For example, a study by Maeda et al. (24) demonstrated that fucoxanthin (0.4% of body mass) or extract that contained fucoxanthin resulted in a significant reduction in white adipose tissue after 4 weeks. The mechanisms may be related to an up-regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) (24), which would result in an increase in resting energy expenditure. Other potential mechanisms include a suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation by inhibiting glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (25) or down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) responsible for adipogenic gene expression (25). However, a quick calculation would reveal that 0.4% body mass in human would equate to 280 g of fucoxanthin per day for an average 70-kg person and would be considered a totally unrealistic dose. However, recently a Russian study was published that used fucoxanthin for the first time in humans (26). In this study, the effects of a product were investigated that contained brown marine algae fucoxanthin as well as pomegranate seed oil. Daily administration of 600 mg of an extract that contained 2.4 mg fucoxanthin per day resulted in a significant weight loss compared with placebo after 16 weeks. The authors also reported increases in resting energy expenditure, decreases in body and liver fat content and improvements in the plasma lipid profile. Weight reductions were about 5 kg more in the supplemented group compared with the placebo group (the placebo group also lost a small amount of weight). However, caution must be exercised when interpreting these findings. At least one of the authors is working for the company that holds the patents for fucoxanthin. At this point in time this is the only human study and therefore more studies need to be conducted to confirm any effects of fucoxanthin in humans.

 

Kelp

Kelp is brown seaweed, and the active ingredient with respect to fat metabolism is believed to be fucoxanthin, which has already been discussed above. Other than the fucoxanthin studies discussed, there appear to be no studies that have investigated the effect of a kelp supplement on fat metabolism.

 

Green tea

[...]Green tea has the potential to increase fat metabolism at rest, also during exercise, and may help to lose body fat and body weight. As with caffeine, the effects appear to be relatively small. The underlying mechanisms for the metabolic effects of GTE are incompletely understood and so are the practical implications.

 

Chromium

[...]Thus, the majority of the studies show that chromium supplements are not effective in increasing lean body mass. Based upon laboratory studies of cultured cells, chromium picolinate was suggested to accumulate in cells and cause chromosome damage (63). Although this finding has not been confirmed in human studies (64), caution must be exercised in the use of chromium supplements.

 

CLA

[...]In conclusion, it would appear that the majority of information with regards to the effects of CLA on altering body weight and composition has been gained from experiments on animals. In human studies, modest fat loss may be achieved through long-term supplementation of ∼3 g d−1 CLA. Future studies should also address the safety issues.

 

Taurine

[...]Taken together, there is insufficient evidence that taurine has a stimulating effect on fat metabolism, but one well-conducted study suggests that it is warranted to further investigate a role for taurine.

 

Concluding remarks

 

For most supplements discussed here, there is a lack of scientific data. Based on the available data, caffeine and green tea have evidence that they indeed have some properties that enhance fat metabolism. However, effects in humans have generally been small and more consistent in low habitual caffeine consumers. For most other supplements, although some show potential to enhance fat metabolism, like CLA, conclusive evidence is lacking. The ever increasing list of fat-burning supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not and cannot be matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning.

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Caffeine, beta-agonists and stimulants. Anything else passed the test of time?

 

I'd like to remind Kimbo and all that 95% of the time, when dieting, the freeing up of the fatty acids is not an issue. The "burning" is the problem. Whether we want it or not (I refuse), extra activity is a determinant factor for (quicker) results.

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Caffeine, beta-agonists and stimulants. Anything else passed the test of time?

 

I'd like to remind Kimbo and all that 95% of the time, when dieting, the freeing up of the fatty acids is not an issue. The "burning" is the problem. Whether we want it or not (I refuse), extra activity is a determinant factor for (quicker) results.

 

Yes, certainly. I think we determined back in the Avant days that fatty acids are freed pretty easily unless one is pretty lean. Figured I would include that, though, as it is a mechanism through which some fat "burners" are supposed to work. None of it matters if the fat isn't burned off (e.g. through activity).

 

Sent from my Galaxy Nexus using Tapatalk

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Fucoxanthin

Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid found in edible brown seaweeds (Undaria pinnatifida). In animal studies it has been demonstrated that long-term fucoxanthin supplementation can result in weight loss. For example, a study by Maeda et al. (24) demonstrated that fucoxanthin (0.4% of body mass) or extract that contained fucoxanthin resulted in a significant reduction in white adipose tissue after 4 weeks. The mechanisms may be related to an up-regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) (24), which would result in an increase in resting energy expenditure. Other potential mechanisms include a suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation by inhibiting glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (25) or down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) responsible for adipogenic gene expression (25). However, a quick calculation would reveal that 0.4% body mass in human would equate to 280 g of fucoxanthin per day for an average 70-kg person and would be considered a totally unrealistic dose. However, recently a Russian study was published that used fucoxanthin for the first time in humans (26). In this study, the effects of a product were investigated that contained brown marine algae fucoxanthin as well as pomegranate seed oil. Daily administration of 600 mg of an extract that contained 2.4 mg fucoxanthin per day resulted in a significant weight loss compared with placebo after 16 weeks. The authors also reported increases in resting energy expenditure, decreases in body and liver fat content and improvements in the plasma lipid profile. Weight reductions were about 5 kg more in the supplemented group compared with the placebo group (the placebo group also lost a small amount of weight). However, caution must be exercised when interpreting these findings. At least one of the authors is working for the company that holds the patents for fucoxanthin. At this point in time this is the only human study and therefore more studies need to be conducted to confirm any effects of fucoxanthin in humans.

 

Kelp

Kelp is brown seaweed, and the active ingredient with respect to fat metabolism is believed to be fucoxanthin, which has already been discussed above. Other than the fucoxanthin studies discussed, there appear to be no studies that have investigated the effect of a kelp supplement on fat metabolism.

 

This stuff belongs under the other thread of "Biggest Supplement Disappointments" for me.

 

Utter shash.

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  • 2 weeks later...

Never had any success with respective supplements but in-vitro citrus aurantium obviously works like a charm

Citrus aurantium flavonoids inhibit adipogenesis through the Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 cells

 

Gon-Sup Kim, Hyoung Joon Park, Jong-Hwa Woo, Mi-Kyeong Kim, Phil-Ok Koh, Wongi Min, Yeoung-Gyu Ko, Chung-Hei Kim, Chung-Kil Won and Jae-Hyeon Cho

 

For all author emails, please log on.

 

BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:31 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-31

Published: 3 April 2012

Abstract (provisional)

Background

 

Obesity is a health hazard that is associated with a number of diseases and metabolic abnormalities, such as type-2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coronary heart disease. In the current study, we investigated the effects of Citrus aurantium flavonoids (CAF) on the inhibition of adipogenesis and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

Methods

 

During adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 0, 10, and 50 mug/ml CAF, and then the mRNA and protein expression of adipogenesis-related genes was assayed. We examined the effect of CAF on level of phosphorylated Akt in 3T3-L1 cells treated with CAF at various concentrations during adipocyte differentiation.

Results

 

The insulin-induced expression of C/EBPbeta and PPARgamma mRNA and protein were significantly down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner following CAF treatment. CAF also dramatically decreased the expression of C/EBPalpha, which is essential for the acquisition of insulin sensitivity by adipocytes. Moreover, the expression of the aP2 and FAS genes, which are involved in lipid metabolism, decreased dramatically upon treatment with CAF. Interestingly, CAF diminished the insulin-stimulated serine phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) and GSK3beta (Ser9), which may reduce glucose uptake in response to insulin and lipid accumulation. Furthermore, CAF not only inhibited triglyceride accumulation during adipogenesis but also contributed to the lipolysis of adipocytes.

Conclusions

 

In the present study, we demonstrate that CAF suppressed adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results indicated that CAF down-regulates the expression of C/EBPbeta and subsequently inhibits the activation of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha. The anti-adipogenic activity of CAF was mediated by the inhibition of Akt activation and GSK3beta phosphorylation, which induced the down-regulation of lipid accumulation and lipid metabolizing genes, ultimately inhibiting adipocyte differentiation.

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  • 2 weeks later...

Do in vivo studies on healthy young men count? :P

 

Tongkat Ali:

THE ERGOGENIC EFFECTS OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA JACK. S. Hamzah, A. Yusof. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia : Br J Sports Med, 2003, Vols. 37:464–470.

THE ERGOGENIC EFFECTS OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA JACK: A PILOT STUDY

S. Hamzah, A. Yusof.

 

Department of Exercise Physiology, Sports Centre, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

 

Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ELJ), which contains quassinoids such as eurycomalacton, eurycomanon, and eurycomanol, has been reported to have aphrodisiac properties and to increase testosterone levels in men.1 Previous studies have established that the testosterone supplementation increases fat free mass, muscle strength, and muscle mass, which are important for physical function and athletic performance.2,3 Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the increase in testosterone levels, obtained by administration of ELJ, on body composition and muscle strength and size in man. Fourteen healthy men performed an intense strength training programme with initial load of 60% RM (2 sets of 10 repetitions with 1 minute rest between, for 10 stations) on alternate days for five weeks. Simultaneously, seven men were randomly selected to consume 100 mg/day ELJ water soluble extract, and seven men received placebo. The intensity of the exercise was increased by 10% RM/week. Body composition, arm circumference, one repetition maximum (1 RM), and surface electromyography (sEMG) activity were measured and recorded one day before and after the five weeks of supplementation and intervention. The lean body mass of the treatment group showed a significant increment, from 52.26 (7.18) kg to 54.39 (7.43) kg (p = 0.012), but no significant changes in fat free mass were observed in the placebo group. Percentage body fat was significantly decreased in the treatment and placebo group, from 31.30 (5.48)% to 28.44 (6.43)% (p = 0.01) and from 22.83 (2.43)% to 21.33 (2.35)% (p = 0.001) respectively. The 1RM test showed a significant increase from 73.71 (16.63) to 78.71 (17.0) kg (p = 0.006) in the treatment group and from 77.29 (8.9) to 79.43 (8.8) kg (p = 0.011) in the placebo group. The increase in strength in the treatment group was larger than in the placebo group (6.78% and 2.77% respectively). The mean frequency of sEMG on the biceps in the treatment and placebo groups decreased significantly, from 121.77 (40.0) to 90.47 (64.6) μV (p = 0.012) and from 127.95 (30.9) to 98.8 (50.1) μV (p = 0.036) respectively. The treatment produced 2.92% greater reduction in electrical activity of the muscle measured at the end of the experiment compared with placebo. The mean arm circumference of the treatment group increased significantly by 1.8 cm after the supplementation, from 30.87 (1.88) to 32.67 (1.96) cm (p = 0.011), but there was no significant increase in the placebo group. The results suggest that water soluble extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack increased fat free mass, reduced body fat, and increased muscle strength and size, and thus may have an ergogenic effect. Further investigations are warranted.

 

 

Fenugreek:

 

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Oct 27;7:34.

 

The effects of a commercially available botanical supplement on strength, body composition, power output, and hormonal profiles in resistance-trained males.

 

Poole C, Bushey B, Foster C, Campbell B, Willoughby D, Kreider R, Taylor L, Wilborn C.

 

 

Source

 

Human Performance Lab, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, Belton, Texas, 76513, USA. cwilborn@umhb.edu.

 

 

Abstract

 

BACKGROUND:

 

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is a leguminous, annual plant originating in India and North Africa. In recent years Fenugreek has been touted as an ergogenic aid. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Fenugreek supplementation on strength and body composition.

 

METHODS:

 

49 Resistance trained men were matched according to body weight and randomly assigned to ingest in a double blind manner capsules containing 500 mg of a placebo (N = 23, 20 ± 1.9 years, 178 ± 6.3 cm, 85 ± 12.7 kg, 17 ± 5.6 %BF) or Fenugreek (N = 26, 21 ± 2.8 years, 178 ± 6 cm, 90 ± 18.2 kg, 19.3 ± 8.4 %BF). Subjects participated in a supervised 4-day per week periodized resistance-training program split into two upper and two lower extremity workouts per week for a total of 8-weeks. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects underwent hydrodensiometery body composition, 1-RM strength, muscle endurance, and anaerobic capacity testing. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and are presented as mean ± SD changes from baseline after 60-days.

 

RESULTS:

 

No significant differences (p > 0.05) between groups were noted for training volume. Significant group × time interaction effects were observed among groups in changes in body fat (FEN: -2.3 ± 1.4%BF; PL: -0.39 ± 1.6 %BF, p < 0.001), leg press 1-RM (FEN: 84.6 ± 36.2 kg; PL: 48 ± 29.5 kg, p < 0.001), and bench press 1-RM (FEN: 9.1 ± 6.9 kg; PL: 4.3 ± 5.6 kg, p = 0.01). No significant interactions was observed among groups for Wingate power analysis (p = 0.95) or muscular endurance on bench press (p = 0.87) or leg press (p = 0.61). In addition, there were no changes among groups in any clinical safety data including lipid panel, liver function, kidney function, and/or CBC panel (p > 0.05).

 

CONCLUSION:

 

It is concluded that 500 mg of this proprietary Fenugreek extraction had a significant impact on both upper- and lower-body strength and body composition in comparison to placebo in a double blind controlled trial. These changes were obtained with no clinical side effects.

 

 

PMID: 20979623 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC2978122 Free PMC Article

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Br J Nutr. 2012 Feb 28:1-14. [Epub ahead of print]

Interrelated effects of dihomo-γ-linolenic and arachidonic acids, and sesamin on hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in rats.

Ide T, Ono Y, Kawashima H, Kiso Y.

Source

 

Laboratory of Nutritional Function, National Food Research Institute, 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba 305-8642, Japan.

Abstract

 

Interrelated effects of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (ARA), and sesamin, a sesame lignan, on hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation were examined in rats. Rats were fed experimental diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g/kg sesamin (1:1 mixture of sesamin and episesamin), containing 100 g/kg of maize oil or fungal oil rich in DGLA or ARA for 16 d. Among the groups fed sesamin-free diets, oils rich in DGLA or ARA, especially the latter, compared with maize oil strongly reduced the activity and mRNA levels of various lipogenic enzymes. Sesamin, irrespective of the type of fat, reduced the parameters of lipogenic enzymes except for malic enzyme. The type of dietary fat was rather irrelevant in affecting hepatic fatty acid oxidation among rats fed the sesamin-free diets. Sesamin increased the activities of enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation in all groups of rats given different fats. The extent of the increase depended on the dietary fat type, and the values became much higher with a diet containing sesamin and oil rich in ARA in combination than with a diet containing lignan and maize oil. Analyses of mRNA levels revealed that the combination of sesamin and oil rich in ARA compared with the combination of lignan and maize oil markedly increased the gene expression of various peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes but not mitochondrial enzymes. The enhancement of sesamin action on hepatic fatty acid oxidation was also confirmed with oil rich in DGLA but to a lesser extent.

 

PMID:

22370182

[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

had a brief look if there was something new on sesamin and found this < not real evidence, though

 

I also wonder nobody ever mentions the CCC stack ;)

Carnitine and Choline Supplementation with Exercise Alter Carnitine Profiles, Biochemical Markers of Fat Metabolism and Serum Leptin Concentration in Healthy Women1

 

Nobuko Hongu and

Dileep S. Sachan2

 

+ Author Affiliations

 

Department of Nutrition and Agricultural Experiment Station, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1900

 

↵2To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: dsachan@utk.edu

 

 

Next Section

Abstract

 

We sought to determine the effects of supplementary choline, carnitine and a combination of the two with or without exercise on serum and urinary carnitine and biochemical markers of fatty acid oxidation in healthy humans. Nineteen women were placed in three groups: 1) placebo, choline or carnitine preloading period of 1 wk followed by 2) supplementation with choline plus carnitine during wk 2-wk 3 and 3) all groups exercised in wk 3. Although there were no changes in the placebo group, serum and urinary carnitine decreased in the choline-supplemented group during wk 1. Introduction of carnitine to the choline group restored serum and urinary carnitine. Serum and urinary carnitine increased during wk 1 in the carnitine-supplemented group and, although the introduction of choline to this group depressed serum and urinary carnitine, they remained significantly greater than control. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate and serum as well as urinary acetylcarnitine were elevated by the supplements. A mild exercise regimen increased the concentration of serum β-hydroxybutyrate, and serum and urinary acylcarnitines; it also decreased serum leptin concentrations in all groups. The effects of supplements were sustained until wk 2 after cessation of choline plus carnitine supplementation and exercise. We conclude that the choline-induced decrease in serum and urinary carnitine is buffered by carnitine preloading, and these supplements shift tissue partitioning of carnitine that favors fat mobilization, incomplete oxidation of fatty acids and disposal of their carbons in urine as acylcarnitines in humans.

where I believe especially the C from choline is largely underrated

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Is there evidence that it actually works?

 

Considering what a staple supplement it was for so many over at MM for years I figured there was some science behind it. But I'm more a follower in the arena of supplements and science, so I guess until further notice I will check this one off the list.

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